Kazakhstan is learned in business
The head of Kazakhstan, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, met President Vladimir Putin in Astana on the airfield, right at the ramp. The result of their negotiations was a joint statement and an action plan for cooperation for 2024-2026.
It would seem, nothing special, a visit, like a visit. And yes, and no. As Tokayev noted, that morning there was a crescent moon surrounded by stars in the sky, and this is a good sign. This was his fourth meeting with Putin this year, according to a correspondent for The Moscow Post.
In October, Putin and Tokayev opened the Russian gas pipeline - Central Asia, an agreement was signed on the transit of Russian gas to Uzbekistan through the Central Asia - Center for still Soviet-built gas pipeline. Through Kazakhstan, Russian oil enters China, and Kazakhstan oil is exported by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC).
In early 2022, Russia and peacekeepers of other CSTO countries protected Kazakhstan from the threat of riots. Today, the leaders of the two countries are tasked with achieving a comprehensive strategic partnership.
In an interview with Kazakhstani Pravda, the Russian President stressed that the partnership between Russia and Kazakhstan "is based on the principles of mutual respect, recognition of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference in internal affairs."
For Kazakhstan there is a fight against the West and how there will be bilateral relations, the future of Big Eurasia depends. In Central Asia strategic interests not only Russia and China, but also the USA with the states of the European Union subordinated to Washington intersect.
Vladimir Putin's visit to Astana took place practically right after Emmanuel Macron's visit. The French nuclear power plants need uranium, and the Orano company together with Kazatomprom already develop fields. Paris also says that it is ready to construct the NPP in Kazakhstan.
Following the results of a meeting with Tokayev Macron called Kazakhstan "the backyard of Russia" said that the Republic "refuses to be the vassal of some powers, but builds the balanced partnership with several of them for the good of the Kazakhstan people".
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov called it manifestation of rudeness, impudence and "the reservation according to Freud". Added that "The European Union does not hide the intentions us in every possible way to constrain, push out from Central Asia and Transcaucasia. It will not turn out. We here historically and we will not disappear anywhere. And our partners, our allies perfectly know it", - the head of the Russian diplomatic service specified.
The visit of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin to Kazakhstan was on November 9 successful for the relations of two countries, the subject of the Kazakhstan-French contacts was not brought up, the press secretary of the Russian President Dmitry Peskov told journalists.
But Macron is not lonely. In October the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the countries of Central Asia and the European Union held a meeting in Luxembourg. Before it in Washington there took place the summit of the president Joe Biden and leaders of the countries of Central Asia. In October the ambassador of the USA opened "the center of peacekeeping operations" in Alma-Ata.
In Kazakhstan about two hundred organizations which receive foreign financing are registered. According to some information, their number includes 53 international organizations, 30 foreign state organizations, 77 foreign NPOs and funds. Two thirds of means come from the USA.
Kazakhstan is threatened with secondary sanctions for participation in "round" by Moscow of the western restrictive measures. Tokayev, in return, assures the western partners that his republic observes the regime of restrictions introduced against Russia though opposes it. "Kazakhstan unambiguously stated that it will follow a sanctions regime" — Tokayev in September, 2023 said.
After failures of the USA in Afghanistan and also a failure in policy in Ukraine, Kazakhstan remains for the West the main country of Central Asia from where it is possible to counteract both Russia, and China.
On the other hand, ten years ago the Chinese President Xi Jinping presented the "One Belt — One Way" program in Kazakhstan. Earlier, the idea of the Eurasian economic cooperation was born here.
The closest allies
The Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, the Assistant to the President Yury Ushakov, the press secretary Dmitry Peskov, the Minister of Economic Development Maxim Reshetnikov, the Minister of Transport Vitaly Savelyev, the Finance Minister Anton Siluanov, the Minister of Energy Nikolay Shulginov, heads of Roskosmos and Rosatom Yury Borisov and Alexey Likhachev entered into delegation of the President.
The memorandum of cooperation in joint construction of three combined heat and power plants, the memorandum concerning inspection of work were signed.
In Kostanay there took place the XIX Forum of interregional cooperation where the Russian Federation was presented by the Deputy Prime Minister Alexey Overchuk. Partner relations with the Kazakhstan areas are established at 76 subjects of Russia. Russia and Kazakhstan hold a leading position in world production of grain. At a forum it was talked of agreements and memorandums for the sum of 100 billion dollars.
Tokayev noted that the forum of interregional cooperation makes a big contribution to development of strategic partnership of Moscow and Astana.
In 2022, bilateral trade grew by 10% to 28.2 billion dollars. In ten months of the current year the trade turnover grew by 7% in annual terms. The main part of mutual settlements are carried out in national currencies.
Direct investments from Russia exceeded 17 billion dollars. From more than 42 thousand local enterprises with foreign participation of 19 thousand — Russian.
Russia and Kazakhstan are included into the CIS, are partners in EEU, divide the most extended border in the world.
Moscow is ready to create the enterprise for assembly of the Lada cars in Kazakhstan. The Inter RAO — Export company (enters into Inter RAO) implements projects of construction of three combined heat and power plants - Kokshetau, Semey and Ust-Kamenogorsk.
The decision on the NPP will be made on a national referendum. Afterwards will hold tenders for the choice of the supplier of technologies. The partner can be chosen already by the end of the year. Rosatom not the only candidate. The authorities of Kazakhstan conduct negotiations with the companies from five countries: from the USA to the People's Republic of China. Construction on the project of Rosatom would be cheaper and simpler in respect of integration of technologies.
Russians in Kazakhstan
Vladimir Putin called the Russian language a common property, a competitive advantage and an important factor in the friendship between Russia and Kazakhstan, recalled that branches of Moscow State University work in Kazakhstan. Lomonosov and other Russian universities.
In 2022, more than 60 thousand students from Kazakhstan studied at Russian universities, including in their foreign branches. Three Russian schools with training in the Russian program will be built in the south of the Republic, although today many subjects in Kazakhstan are taught in Russian.
Cities with a Russian-speaking population include Alma-Ata (468 thousand inhabitants), Astana (138 thousand), Shymkent (93.6 thousand), Karaganda (202 thousand) and Aktobe (74 thousand inhabitants). The share of Russians in the population of Kazakhstan is about 19% (3.5 million people). Geographically, Russians concentrate in the north, east and central part of the country. The share of interethnic marriages exceeds 40%.
The first Cossack settlements in Kazakhstan began to form during the Moscow kingdom in the 16th century. When Kazakhstan was formed in 1922, the Russian Federation shared the territory and five cities, including Uralsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Pavlodar, Petropavlovsk, Kazalinsk.
It is friendly relations
"Your visit has very great political, one might say, and historical significance. Everyone knows that Kazakhstan and Russia are allies, strategic partners. We are united by strong bonds of friendship, a common history and close spiritual ties, "Tokayev said, addressing Putin. He noted that Russia and Kazakhstan have preserved and multiplied the main wealth - fraternal feelings and good-neighborly relations between the two peoples. "I note with satisfaction that today our interaction is successful," Tokayev said.
At the meeting of the Security Council, they discussed the implementation of the country's transport and logistics potential and the importance for the economy of transit cargo transportation, including along the Trans-Caspian international transport route. Attention is required to synchronize industrial development, exports and transit potential, standards in infrastructure construction, the effect of transport and industry logistics on the economy.
To attract investors, Kazakhstan has preferential regimes in 14 free economic zones. The government is taking measures to create clusters of high redistribution in oil and gas chemistry, metallurgy, heavy engineering, the production of automotive components and fertilizers. One of the tasks is the development of deposits of rare and rare earth metals.
Kazakhstan needs import substitution, additional volumes of generation, production with a high share of localization, including the defense industry. The country should also become one of the leading agricultural centers of the Eurasian continent. Tokayev called the strategic task of turning Kazakhstan into an IT country that can export IT services.
Vladimir Putin, for his part, recalled that soon it will be ten years since the conclusion of the basic agreement on good neighborliness and alliance in the 21st century. "Indeed, it has become a solid basis for the development of our multifaceted friendly relations, I would like to emphasize this particular aspect of our relations - it is friendly relations," the Russian leader said.